python メソッド help()

組み込み関数とメソッド

{辞書データ}.get()を知らなかった

独学の罠で、データ型については、ほぼスルーしてたので、データ型に紐付いたメソッドが有るとは知らなかった。

リストに.append()はよく使ったが、組み込み関数と思ってた。

標準メソッドは関数ではない。調べたときは意味がわかるが、すぐ忘れるし、まして使いこなせない。

help(型)でメソッドが表示される。

n=0
s=''
l=[]
d={}

print(help(n))

print(help(s))

print(help(l))

print(help(d))

イント型の組み込みメソッド

  
Help on int object:

class int(object)
 |  int([x]) -> integer
 |  int(x, base=10) -> integer
 |  
 |  Convert a number or string to an integer, or return 0 if no arguments
 |  are given.  If x is a number, return x.__int__().  For floating point
 |  numbers, this truncates towards zero.
 |  
 |  If x is not a number or if base is given, then x must be a string,
 |  bytes, or bytearray instance representing an integer literal in the
 |  given base.  The literal can be preceded by '+' or '-' and be surrounded
 |  by whitespace.  The base defaults to 10.  Valid bases are 0 and 2-36.
 |  Base 0 means to interpret the base from the string as an integer literal.
 |  >>> int('0b100', base=0)
 |  4
 |  
 |  Built-in subclasses:
 |      bool
 |  
 |  Methods defined here:
 |  
 |  __abs__(self, /)
 |      abs(self)
 |  
 |  __add__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self+value.
 |  
 |  __and__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self&value.
 |  
 |  __bool__(self, /)
 |      self != 0
 |  
 |  __ceil__(...)
 |      Ceiling of an Integral returns itself.
 |  
 |  __divmod__(self, value, /)
 |      Return divmod(self, value).
 |  
 |  __eq__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self==value.
 |  
 |  __float__(self, /)
 |      float(self)
 |  
 |  __floor__(...)
 |      Flooring an Integral returns itself.
 |  
 |  __floordiv__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self//value.
 |  
 |  __format__(self, format_spec, /)
 |      Default object formatter.
 |  
 |  __ge__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self>=value.
 |  
 |  __getattribute__(self, name, /)
 |      Return getattr(self, name).
 |  
 |  __getnewargs__(self, /)
 |  
 |  __gt__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self>value.
 |  
 |  __hash__(self, /)
 |      Return hash(self).
 |  
 |  __index__(self, /)
 |      Return self converted to an integer, if self is suitable for use as an index into a list.
 |  
 |  __int__(self, /)
 |      int(self)
 |  
 |  __invert__(self, /)
 |      ~self
 |  
 |  __le__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self<=value.
 |  
 |  __lshift__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self<<value.
 |  
 |  __lt__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self<value.
 |  
 |  __mod__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self%value.
 |  
 |  __mul__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self*value.
 |  
 |  __ne__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self!=value.
 |  
 |  __neg__(self, /)
 |      -self
 |  
 |  __or__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self|value.
 |  
 |  __pos__(self, /)
 |      +self
 |  
 |  __pow__(self, value, mod=None, /)
 |      Return pow(self, value, mod).
 |  
 |  __radd__(self, value, /)
 |      Return value+self.
 |  
 |  __rand__(self, value, /)
 |      Return value&self.
 |  
 |  __rdivmod__(self, value, /)
 |      Return divmod(value, self).
 |  
 |  __repr__(self, /)
 |      Return repr(self).
 |  
 |  __rfloordiv__(self, value, /)
 |      Return value//self.
 |  
 |  __rlshift__(self, value, /)
 |      Return value<<self.
 |  
 |  __rmod__(self, value, /)
 |      Return value%self.
 |  
 |  __rmul__(self, value, /)
 |      Return value*self.
 |  
 |  __ror__(self, value, /)
 |      Return value|self.
 |  
 |  __round__(...)
 |      Rounding an Integral returns itself.
 |      Rounding with an ndigits argument also returns an integer.
 |  
 |  __rpow__(self, value, mod=None, /)
 |      Return pow(value, self, mod).
 |  
 |  __rrshift__(self, value, /)
 |      Return value>>self.
 |  
 |  __rshift__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self>>value.
 |  
 |  __rsub__(self, value, /)
 |      Return value-self.
 |  
 |  __rtruediv__(self, value, /)
 |      Return value/self.
 |  
 |  __rxor__(self, value, /)
 |      Return value^self.
 |  
 |  __sizeof__(self, /)
 |      Returns size in memory, in bytes.
 |  
 |  __sub__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self-value.
 |  
 |  __truediv__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self/value.
 |  
 |  __trunc__(...)
 |      Truncating an Integral returns itself.
 |  
 |  __xor__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self^value.
 |  
 |  as_integer_ratio(self, /)
 |      Return integer ratio.
 |      
 |      Return a pair of integers, whose ratio is exactly equal to the original int
 |      and with a positive denominator.
 |      
 |      >>> (10).as_integer_ratio()
 |      (10, 1)
 |      >>> (-10).as_integer_ratio()
 |      (-10, 1)
 |      >>> (0).as_integer_ratio()
 |      (0, 1)
 |  
 |  bit_length(self, /)
 |      Number of bits necessary to represent self in binary.
 |      
 |      >>> bin(37)
 |      '0b100101'
 |      >>> (37).bit_length()
 |      6
 |  
 |  conjugate(...)
 |      Returns self, the complex conjugate of any int.
 |  
 |  to_bytes(self, /, length, byteorder, *, signed=False)
 |      Return an array of bytes representing an integer.
 |      
 |      length
 |        Length of bytes object to use.  An OverflowError is raised if the
 |        integer is not representable with the given number of bytes.
 |      byteorder
 |        The byte order used to represent the integer.  If byteorder is 'big',
 |        the most significant byte is at the beginning of the byte array.  If
 |        byteorder is 'little', the most significant byte is at the end of the
 |        byte array.  To request the native byte order of the host system, use
 |        `sys.byteorder' as the byte order value.
 |      signed
 |        Determines whether two's complement is used to represent the integer.
 |        If signed is False and a negative integer is given, an OverflowError
 |        is raised.
 |  
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Class methods defined here:
 |  
 |  from_bytes(bytes, byteorder, *, signed=False) from builtins.type
 |      Return the integer represented by the given array of bytes.
 |      
 |      bytes
 |        Holds the array of bytes to convert.  The argument must either
 |        support the buffer protocol or be an iterable object producing bytes.
 |        Bytes and bytearray are examples of built-in objects that support the
 |        buffer protocol.
 |      byteorder
 |        The byte order used to represent the integer.  If byteorder is 'big',
 |        the most significant byte is at the beginning of the byte array.  If
 |        byteorder is 'little', the most significant byte is at the end of the
 |        byte array.  To request the native byte order of the host system, use
 |        `sys.byteorder' as the byte order value.
 |      signed
 |        Indicates whether two's complement is used to represent the integer.
 |  
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Static methods defined here:
 |  
 |  __new__(*args, **kwargs) from builtins.type
 |      Create and return a new object.  See help(type) for accurate signature.
 |  
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Data descriptors defined here:
 |  
 |  denominator
 |      the denominator of a rational number in lowest terms
 |  
 |  imag
 |      the imaginary part of a complex number
 |  
 |  numerator
 |      the numerator of a rational number in lowest terms
 |  
 |  real
 |      the real part of a complex number

None

文字型の組み込みメソッド

Help on class str in module builtins:

class str(object)
 |  str(object='') -> str
 |  str(bytes_or_buffer[, encoding[, errors]]) -> str
 |  
 |  Create a new string object from the given object. If encoding or
 |  errors is specified, then the object must expose a data buffer
 |  that will be decoded using the given encoding and error handler.
 |  Otherwise, returns the result of object.__str__() (if defined)
 |  or repr(object).
 |  encoding defaults to sys.getdefaultencoding().
 |  errors defaults to 'strict'.
 |  
 |  Methods defined here:
 |  
 |  __add__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self+value.
 |  
 |  __contains__(self, key, /)
 |      Return key in self.
 |  
 |  __eq__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self==value.
 |  
 |  __format__(self, format_spec, /)
 |      Return a formatted version of the string as described by format_spec.
 |  
 |  __ge__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self>=value.
 |  
 |  __getattribute__(self, name, /)
 |      Return getattr(self, name).
 |  
 |  __getitem__(self, key, /)
 |      Return self[key].
 |  
 |  __getnewargs__(...)
 |  
 |  __gt__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self>value.
 |  
 |  __hash__(self, /)
 |      Return hash(self).
 |  
 |  __iter__(self, /)
 |      Implement iter(self).
 |  
 |  __le__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self<=value.
 |  
 |  __len__(self, /)
 |      Return len(self).
 |  
 |  __lt__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self<value.
 |  
 |  __mod__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self%value.
 |  
 |  __mul__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self*value.
 |  
 |  __ne__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self!=value.
 |  
 |  __repr__(self, /)
 |      Return repr(self).
 |  
 |  __rmod__(self, value, /)
 |      Return value%self.
 |  
 |  __rmul__(self, value, /)
 |      Return value*self.
 |  
 |  __sizeof__(self, /)
 |      Return the size of the string in memory, in bytes.
 |  
 |  __str__(self, /)
 |      Return str(self).
 |  
 |  capitalize(self, /)
 |      Return a capitalized version of the string.
 |      
 |      More specifically, make the first character have upper case and the rest lower
 |      case.
 |  
 |  casefold(self, /)
 |      Return a version of the string suitable for caseless comparisons.
 |  
 |  center(self, width, fillchar=' ', /)
 |      Return a centered string of length width.
 |      
 |      Padding is done using the specified fill character (default is a space).
 |  
 |  count(...)
 |      S.count(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int
 |      
 |      Return the number of non-overlapping occurrences of substring sub in
 |      string S[start:end].  Optional arguments start and end are
 |      interpreted as in slice notation.
 |  
 |  encode(self, /, encoding='utf-8', errors='strict')
 |      Encode the string using the codec registered for encoding.
 |      
 |      encoding
 |        The encoding in which to encode the string.
 |      errors
 |        The error handling scheme to use for encoding errors.
 |        The default is 'strict' meaning that encoding errors raise a
 |        UnicodeEncodeError.  Other possible values are 'ignore', 'replace' and
 |        'xmlcharrefreplace' as well as any other name registered with
 |        codecs.register_error that can handle UnicodeEncodeErrors.
 |  
 |  endswith(...)
 |      S.endswith(suffix[, start[, end]]) -> bool
 |      
 |      Return True if S ends with the specified suffix, False otherwise.
 |      With optional start, test S beginning at that position.
 |      With optional end, stop comparing S at that position.
 |      suffix can also be a tuple of strings to try.
 |  
 |  expandtabs(self, /, tabsize=8)
 |      Return a copy where all tab characters are expanded using spaces.
 |      
 |      If tabsize is not given, a tab size of 8 characters is assumed.
 |  
 |  find(...)
 |      S.find(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int
 |      
 |      Return the lowest index in S where substring sub is found,
 |      such that sub is contained within S[start:end].  Optional
 |      arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.
 |      
 |      Return -1 on failure.
 |  
 |  format(...)
 |      S.format(*args, **kwargs) -> str
 |      
 |      Return a formatted version of S, using substitutions from args and kwargs.
 |      The substitutions are identified by braces ('{' and '}').
 |  
 |  format_map(...)
 |      S.format_map(mapping) -> str
 |      
 |      Return a formatted version of S, using substitutions from mapping.
 |      The substitutions are identified by braces ('{' and '}').
 |  
 |  index(...)
 |      S.index(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int
 |      
 |      Return the lowest index in S where substring sub is found,
 |      such that sub is contained within S[start:end].  Optional
 |      arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.
 |      
 |      Raises ValueError when the substring is not found.
 |  
 |  isalnum(self, /)
 |      Return True if the string is an alpha-numeric string, False otherwise.
 |      
 |      A string is alpha-numeric if all characters in the string are alpha-numeric and
 |      there is at least one character in the string.
 |  
 |  isalpha(self, /)
 |      Return True if the string is an alphabetic string, False otherwise.
 |      
 |      A string is alphabetic if all characters in the string are alphabetic and there
 |      is at least one character in the string.
 |  
 |  isascii(self, /)
 |      Return True if all characters in the string are ASCII, False otherwise.
 |      
 |      ASCII characters have code points in the range U+0000-U+007F.
 |      Empty string is ASCII too.
 |  
 |  isdecimal(self, /)
 |      Return True if the string is a decimal string, False otherwise.
 |      
 |      A string is a decimal string if all characters in the string are decimal and
 |      there is at least one character in the string.
 |  
 |  isdigit(self, /)
 |      Return True if the string is a digit string, False otherwise.
 |      
 |      A string is a digit string if all characters in the string are digits and there
 |      is at least one character in the string.
 |  
 |  isidentifier(self, /)
 |      Return True if the string is a valid Python identifier, False otherwise.
 |      
 |      Call keyword.iskeyword(s) to test whether string s is a reserved identifier,
 |      such as "def" or "class".
 |  
 |  islower(self, /)
 |      Return True if the string is a lowercase string, False otherwise.
 |      
 |      A string is lowercase if all cased characters in the string are lowercase and
 |      there is at least one cased character in the string.
 |  
 |  isnumeric(self, /)
 |      Return True if the string is a numeric string, False otherwise.
 |      
 |      A string is numeric if all characters in the string are numeric and there is at
 |      least one character in the string.
 |  
 |  isprintable(self, /)
 |      Return True if the string is printable, False otherwise.
 |      
 |      A string is printable if all of its characters are considered printable in
 |      repr() or if it is empty.
 |  
 |  isspace(self, /)
 |      Return True if the string is a whitespace string, False otherwise.
 |      
 |      A string is whitespace if all characters in the string are whitespace and there
 |      is at least one character in the string.
 |  
 |  istitle(self, /)
 |      Return True if the string is a title-cased string, False otherwise.
 |      
 |      In a title-cased string, upper- and title-case characters may only
 |      follow uncased characters and lowercase characters only cased ones.
 |  
 |  isupper(self, /)
 |      Return True if the string is an uppercase string, False otherwise.
 |      
 |      A string is uppercase if all cased characters in the string are uppercase and
 |      there is at least one cased character in the string.
 |  
 |  join(self, iterable, /)
 |      Concatenate any number of strings.
 |      
 |      The string whose method is called is inserted in between each given string.
 |      The result is returned as a new string.
 |      
 |      Example: '.'.join(['ab', 'pq', 'rs']) -> 'ab.pq.rs'
 |  
 |  ljust(self, width, fillchar=' ', /)
 |      Return a left-justified string of length width.
 |      
 |      Padding is done using the specified fill character (default is a space).
 |  
 |  lower(self, /)
 |      Return a copy of the string converted to lowercase.
 |  
 |  lstrip(self, chars=None, /)
 |      Return a copy of the string with leading whitespace removed.
 |      
 |      If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.
 |  
 |  partition(self, sep, /)
 |      Partition the string into three parts using the given separator.
 |      
 |      This will search for the separator in the string.  If the separator is found,
 |      returns a 3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator
 |      itself, and the part after it.
 |      
 |      If the separator is not found, returns a 3-tuple containing the original string
 |      and two empty strings.
 |  
 |  replace(self, old, new, count=-1, /)
 |      Return a copy with all occurrences of substring old replaced by new.
 |      
 |        count
 |          Maximum number of occurrences to replace.
 |          -1 (the default value) means replace all occurrences.
 |      
 |      If the optional argument count is given, only the first count occurrences are
 |      replaced.
 |  
 |  rfind(...)
 |      S.rfind(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int
 |      
 |      Return the highest index in S where substring sub is found,
 |      such that sub is contained within S[start:end].  Optional
 |      arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.
 |      
 |      Return -1 on failure.
 |  
 |  rindex(...)
 |      S.rindex(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int
 |      
 |      Return the highest index in S where substring sub is found,
 |      such that sub is contained within S[start:end].  Optional
 |      arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.
 |      
 |      Raises ValueError when the substring is not found.
 |  
 |  rjust(self, width, fillchar=' ', /)
 |      Return a right-justified string of length width.
 |      
 |      Padding is done using the specified fill character (default is a space).
 |  
 |  rpartition(self, sep, /)
 |      Partition the string into three parts using the given separator.
 |      
 |      This will search for the separator in the string, starting at the end. If
 |      the separator is found, returns a 3-tuple containing the part before the
 |      separator, the separator itself, and the part after it.
 |      
 |      If the separator is not found, returns a 3-tuple containing two empty strings
 |      and the original string.
 |  
 |  rsplit(self, /, sep=None, maxsplit=-1)
 |      Return a list of the words in the string, using sep as the delimiter string.
 |      
 |        sep
 |          The delimiter according which to split the string.
 |          None (the default value) means split according to any whitespace,
 |          and discard empty strings from the result.
 |        maxsplit
 |          Maximum number of splits to do.
 |          -1 (the default value) means no limit.
 |      
 |      Splits are done starting at the end of the string and working to the front.
 |  
 |  rstrip(self, chars=None, /)
 |      Return a copy of the string with trailing whitespace removed.
 |      
 |      If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.
 |  
 |  split(self, /, sep=None, maxsplit=-1)
 |      Return a list of the words in the string, using sep as the delimiter string.
 |      
 |      sep
 |        The delimiter according which to split the string.
 |        None (the default value) means split according to any whitespace,
 |        and discard empty strings from the result.
 |      maxsplit
 |        Maximum number of splits to do.
 |        -1 (the default value) means no limit.
 |  
 |  splitlines(self, /, keepends=False)
 |      Return a list of the lines in the string, breaking at line boundaries.
 |      
 |      Line breaks are not included in the resulting list unless keepends is given and
 |      true.
 |  
 |  startswith(...)
 |      S.startswith(prefix[, start[, end]]) -> bool
 |      
 |      Return True if S starts with the specified prefix, False otherwise.
 |      With optional start, test S beginning at that position.
 |      With optional end, stop comparing S at that position.
 |      prefix can also be a tuple of strings to try.
 |  
 |  strip(self, chars=None, /)
 |      Return a copy of the string with leading and trailing whitespace removed.
 |      
 |      If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.
 |  
 |  swapcase(self, /)
 |      Convert uppercase characters to lowercase and lowercase characters to uppercase.
 |  
 |  title(self, /)
 |      Return a version of the string where each word is titlecased.
 |      
 |      More specifically, words start with uppercased characters and all remaining
 |      cased characters have lower case.
 |  
 |  translate(self, table, /)
 |      Replace each character in the string using the given translation table.
 |      
 |        table
 |          Translation table, which must be a mapping of Unicode ordinals to
 |          Unicode ordinals, strings, or None.
 |      
 |      The table must implement lookup/indexing via __getitem__, for instance a
 |      dictionary or list.  If this operation raises LookupError, the character is
 |      left untouched.  Characters mapped to None are deleted.
 |  
 |  upper(self, /)
 |      Return a copy of the string converted to uppercase.
 |  
 |  zfill(self, width, /)
 |      Pad a numeric string with zeros on the left, to fill a field of the given width.
 |      
 |      The string is never truncated.
 |  
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Static methods defined here:
 |  
 |  __new__(*args, **kwargs) from builtins.type
 |      Create and return a new object.  See help(type) for accurate signature.
 |  
 |  maketrans(...)
 |      Return a translation table usable for str.translate().
 |      
 |      If there is only one argument, it must be a dictionary mapping Unicode
 |      ordinals (integers) or characters to Unicode ordinals, strings or None.
 |      Character keys will be then converted to ordinals.
 |      If there are two arguments, they must be strings of equal length, and
 |      in the resulting dictionary, each character in x will be mapped to the
 |      character at the same position in y. If there is a third argument, it
 |      must be a string, whose characters will be mapped to None in the result.

None

リスト型の組み込みメソッド

Help on list object:

class list(object)
 |  list(iterable=(), /)
 |  
 |  Built-in mutable sequence.
 |  
 |  If no argument is given, the constructor creates a new empty list.
 |  The argument must be an iterable if specified.
 |  
 |  Methods defined here:
 |  
 |  __add__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self+value.
 |  
 |  __contains__(self, key, /)
 |      Return key in self.
 |  
 |  __delitem__(self, key, /)
 |      Delete self[key].
 |  
 |  __eq__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self==value.
 |  
 |  __ge__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self>=value.
 |  
 |  __getattribute__(self, name, /)
 |      Return getattr(self, name).
 |  
 |  __getitem__(...)
 |      x.__getitem__(y) <==> x[y]
 |  
 |  __gt__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self>value.
 |  
 |  __iadd__(self, value, /)
 |      Implement self+=value.
 |  
 |  __imul__(self, value, /)
 |      Implement self*=value.
 |  
 |  __init__(self, /, *args, **kwargs)
 |      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
 |  
 |  __iter__(self, /)
 |      Implement iter(self).
 |  
 |  __le__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self<=value.
 |  
 |  __len__(self, /)
 |      Return len(self).
 |  
 |  __lt__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self<value.
 |  
 |  __mul__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self*value.
 |  
 |  __ne__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self!=value.
 |  
 |  __repr__(self, /)
 |      Return repr(self).
 |  
 |  __reversed__(self, /)
 |      Return a reverse iterator over the list.
 |  
 |  __rmul__(self, value, /)
 |      Return value*self.
 |  
 |  __setitem__(self, key, value, /)
 |      Set self[key] to value.
 |  
 |  __sizeof__(self, /)
 |      Return the size of the list in memory, in bytes.
 |  
 |  append(self, object, /)
 |      Append object to the end of the list.
 |  
 |  clear(self, /)
 |      Remove all items from list.
 |  
 |  copy(self, /)
 |      Return a shallow copy of the list.
 |  
 |  count(self, value, /)
 |      Return number of occurrences of value.
 |  
 |  extend(self, iterable, /)
 |      Extend list by appending elements from the iterable.
 |  
 |  index(self, value, start=0, stop=9223372036854775807, /)
 |      Return first index of value.
 |      
 |      Raises ValueError if the value is not present.
 |  
 |  insert(self, index, object, /)
 |      Insert object before index.
 |  
 |  pop(self, index=-1, /)
 |      Remove and return item at index (default last).
 |      
 |      Raises IndexError if list is empty or index is out of range.
 |  
 |  remove(self, value, /)
 |      Remove first occurrence of value.
 |      
 |      Raises ValueError if the value is not present.
 |  
 |  reverse(self, /)
 |      Reverse *IN PLACE*.
 |  
 |  sort(self, /, *, key=None, reverse=False)
 |      Sort the list in ascending order and return None.
 |      
 |      The sort is in-place (i.e. the list itself is modified) and stable (i.e. the
 |      order of two equal elements is maintained).
 |      
 |      If a key function is given, apply it once to each list item and sort them,
 |      ascending or descending, according to their function values.
 |      
 |      The reverse flag can be set to sort in descending order.
 |  
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Static methods defined here:
 |  
 |  __new__(*args, **kwargs) from builtins.type
 |      Create and return a new object.  See help(type) for accurate signature.
 |  
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Data and other attributes defined here:
 |  
 |  __hash__ = None

None

辞書型の組み込みメソッド

Help on dict object:

class dict(object)
 |  dict() -> new empty dictionary
 |  dict(mapping) -> new dictionary initialized from a mapping object's
 |      (key, value) pairs
 |  dict(iterable) -> new dictionary initialized as if via:
 |      d = {}
 |      for k, v in iterable:
 |          d[k] = v
 |  dict(**kwargs) -> new dictionary initialized with the name=value pairs
 |      in the keyword argument list.  For example:  dict(one=1, two=2)
 |  
 |  Methods defined here:
 |  
 |  __contains__(self, key, /)
 |      True if the dictionary has the specified key, else False.
 |  
 |  __delitem__(self, key, /)
 |      Delete self[key].
 |  
 |  __eq__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self==value.
 |  
 |  __ge__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self>=value.
 |  
 |  __getattribute__(self, name, /)
 |      Return getattr(self, name).
 |  
 |  __getitem__(...)
 |      x.__getitem__(y) <==> x[y]
 |  
 |  __gt__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self>value.
 |  
 |  __init__(self, /, *args, **kwargs)
 |      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
 |  
 |  __iter__(self, /)
 |      Implement iter(self).
 |  
 |  __le__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self<=value.
 |  
 |  __len__(self, /)
 |      Return len(self).
 |  
 |  __lt__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self<value.
 |  
 |  __ne__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self!=value.
 |  
 |  __repr__(self, /)
 |      Return repr(self).
 |  
 |  __reversed__(self, /)
 |      Return a reverse iterator over the dict keys.
 |  
 |  __setitem__(self, key, value, /)
 |      Set self[key] to value.
 |  
 |  __sizeof__(...)
 |      D.__sizeof__() -> size of D in memory, in bytes
 |  
 |  clear(...)
 |      D.clear() -> None.  Remove all items from D.
 |  
 |  copy(...)
 |      D.copy() -> a shallow copy of D
 |  
 |  get(self, key, default=None, /)
 |      Return the value for key if key is in the dictionary, else default.
 |  
 |  items(...)
 |      D.items() -> a set-like object providing a view on D's items
 |  
 |  keys(...)
 |      D.keys() -> a set-like object providing a view on D's keys
 |  
 |  pop(...)
 |      D.pop(k[,d]) -> v, remove specified key and return the corresponding value.
 |      If key is not found, d is returned if given, otherwise KeyError is raised
 |  
 |  popitem(self, /)
 |      Remove and return a (key, value) pair as a 2-tuple.
 |      
 |      Pairs are returned in LIFO (last-in, first-out) order.
 |      Raises KeyError if the dict is empty.
 |  
 |  setdefault(self, key, default=None, /)
 |      Insert key with a value of default if key is not in the dictionary.
 |      
 |      Return the value for key if key is in the dictionary, else default.
 |  
 |  update(...)
 |      D.update([E, ]**F) -> None.  Update D from dict/iterable E and F.
 |      If E is present and has a .keys() method, then does:  for k in E: D[k] = E[k]
 |      If E is present and lacks a .keys() method, then does:  for k, v in E: D[k] = v
 |      In either case, this is followed by: for k in F:  D[k] = F[k]
 |  
 |  values(...)
 |      D.values() -> an object providing a view on D's values
 |  
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Class methods defined here:
 |  
 |  fromkeys(iterable, value=None, /) from builtins.type
 |      Create a new dictionary with keys from iterable and values set to value.
 |  
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Static methods defined here:
 |  
 |  __new__(*args, **kwargs) from builtins.type
 |      Create and return a new object.  See help(type) for accurate signature.
 |  
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Data and other attributes defined here:
 |  
 |  __hash__ = None

None

クラスの(self)はホント邪魔、引数として使わないのだからここにあるのはおかしいですよね。

表示的には隠して内部で処理しろよって思いますよね。

全世界のパイソニスとほぼ全員がそう思ってますよね。

Guido van Rossumさん、仕様を変更してください。

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